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By Bhowmick D., Davison A.C.

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The neutron and the proton, and many other particles heavier than the proton and the neutron, the baryons, are made of three quarks and the mesons are made of a quark and an antiquark. The inner structure of such objects has been studied, for example, with high-energy electrons and it has been found that at higher bombarding energies – several GeV – additional quark–antiquark pairs are being ‘‘resolved” and a part of the energy and the momentum of these particles is not carried by the quarks, but by the massless gluons mediating the strong force.

In 1932, the invention of the cyclotron by Lawrence and Livingston [50] and in 1939 the discovery of the nuclear fission by Hahn and Strassmann [51, 52] opened new possibilities for secondary particle production as high-intensity neutrons, radioactive isotopes, gammas, pions, and muons. In addition to fission, nuclear fusion of light elements produces secondary particles such as neutrons, produces energy, and radioactive species. The fusion of light nuclei (hydrogen isotopes) was first observed by Oliphant in 1933 [53].

The quarks are the ‘‘bricks’’ for all known mesons and baryons. More than 200 mesons and baryons are known. Gluons are the exchange particles for the so-called color force between quarks, analogous to the exchange of photons in the electromagnetic force between two charged particles. The gluon can be considered to be the fundamental exchange particle for the strong interaction between protons and neutrons in a nucleus. The short-range nucleon–nucleon interaction can be considered to be a residual color force extending outside the boundary of the proton or neutron.

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