By S E Hughes
A concise and available consultant to the data required to fulfil the position of a welding inspector. In masking either eu and US-based codes, the e-book provides these wishing to realize certification in welding inspection a easy all-round knowing of the most topic matter.
- A concise and obtainable advisor to the data required to fulfil the position of a welding inspector
- Covers either ecu and US-based codes
- Gives these wishing to achieve certification in welding inspection a simple all-round realizing of the most topic matter
Read Online or Download A Quick Guide to Welding and Weld Inspection PDF
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Additional resources for A Quick Guide to Welding and Weld Inspection
Weld preps made using thermal cutting processes can be affected by the heat of the cutting process. This can lead to a possible loss of toughness or cracking in the HAZ, so approximately 3 mm of material is normally removed from the prep by mechanical means after thermal cutting. Typical thermal cutting processes (used to form straightsided preps such as square edged or bevelled) include plasma, oxy-fuel gas or oxy-arc processes. If cutting is by an oxygen fuel gas process such as oxyacetylene then the weld preps can gain excess carbon from the process, leading to cracking in the weld (the carbon increases the weld metal hardness and therefore the risk of cracking).
PWHT stress relief in the 300 to 700 8C range may cause precipitation of the alpha prime phase (‘475 8C embrittlement’), causing a loss of toughness and corrosion resistance. Stress relief in the range of 700 to 1000 8C leads to rapid precipitation of intermetallic phases, resulting in loss of toughness and corrosion resistance. Heat treatment of duplex steel, for whatever reason, should be a full solution anneal followed by water quenching. In summary, the best way to avoid problems with duplex steels is to avoid excessive ferrite levels and limit the total time at temperature in the HAZ.
1 shows the formula used to determine the Cev for a material. As a general guide the following Cev levels determine the weldability of steels: . 4%: good weldability; . 5%: limited weldability; . 5%: poor weldability. 4% carbon Plain carbon steels contain only iron and carbon as main alloying elements. Traces of other elements such as Mn, Si, Al, S and P may also be present. It can be seen from the carbon diagram in Fig. 2 that an increase in carbon causes the ductility of steel to decrease while the tensile strength and hardness increase.