By Harold F. Schiffman
This can be a reference grammar of the traditional spoken number of Tamil, which differs extensively from the literary language. This publication, a miles accelerated model of the author's Grammar of Spoken Tamil (1979) is the 1st such grammar to include examples either in Tamil script and in transliteration, and is designed to be obtainable to scholars learning the trendy spoken language in any respect degrees in addition to to linguists and different experts. The booklet has benefited from large native-speaker enter and the author's personal lengthy event of training Tamil to English-speakers.
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Additional resources for A Reference Grammar of Spoken Tamil (Reference Grammars)
2). 3. g. ' The locative marker is -le with inanimate nouns and -kitte with animates. ' Note that in LT the locative case marker is (£)*\), and many traditional grammarians prefer to think of le(e) as derived from (g|fl) with an additional 'emphatic' ee $j added. g. viittleyee 'right in the house'), so this cannot be taken be a true occurrence of emphatic ee. ) show this ee in modern ST, it should probably be taken as a marker of location, and not emphasis. ) Examples of inanimate nouns: 1. LDcrih maram 'tree' + -le — • \£>\j$>$\Qtt> marattu-le 'in the tree' 2.
4. 4. POSTPOSITIONS 37 Often mass nouns are not marked for the accusative because accusative marking makes these nouns particular. rnJiJ)L_®LCL_wT ade saappittutteen it-ACC eat-COMPL-PAST-PNG 'I a t e it all u p . 1) animate objects are marked for accusative, the subject is marked dative, and no nominativemarked noun may appear in the sentence. 4 Postpositions For certain notions expressed in English by prepositions, Tamil case endings are not sufficient. Instead, additional 'postpositions' are affixed after the case marker.
7. Deletion of /, r, /before stops, internally: utkkaarndeen — • ukkaandeen etc. 8. General cluster reduction: utkaaru — • okkaaru; keetkireen — • keekkreen. 4. APPENDIX 23 9. Monophthongization of ai to e: in accusatives, noun endings, internally. Exception: in monosyllables, vai — • vayyi or in initial syllables of polysyllabic words. 10. Intervocalic v and k deletion. Complicated, but examples: paarkkavillai —r paakkalle ([paikkale]; poohaveendum —• poohanum ([poihanu]); poohireen —> pooreen; konduvaa —• kondaa, etc.