Download Actium 31 BC: Downfall of Antony and Cleopatra by Si Sheppard PDF

By Si Sheppard

Actium 31 BC[Osprey crusade 211] КНИГИ ;ВОЕННАЯ ИСТОРИЯ Автор: Si Sheppard Название: Actium 31 BC[Osprey crusade 211] Издательство:Osprey PublishingГод: 2009 Формат: pdf,rar+3% Размер: 40.7 MB Язык: английскийСтраниц: zero

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Extra info for Actium 31 BC: Downfall of Antony and Cleopatra

Sample text

31 Octavian forced to return to Italy to quell domestic disorder. Defection of Plancus and Titius. war on Cleopatra. Winter Octavian takes office as consul for the fourth time. year. Octavian formally declares Autumn Octavian holds court at Samos. Defections of Amyntas, Polemo, Octavian feigns offering to lay January 13 down his extraordinary powers to the Senate. January 1 6 The Senate confers the title Augustus upon Octavian; end of the Republic and dawn of the Imperial era. OPPOSING COMMANDERS A coin of Octavian, a name employed only by his enemies; from claiming his inheritance after the ides of March until his death nearly 60 years later he was always Caesar.

Antony then departed Alexandria for the east, leading his army as far as the Araxes. It was here he received Octavian's response. Octavian made no effort to be conciliatory. He simply ignored most of Antony's assertions, wounding the most when he contended Antony's legions had no claim on Italy since they had added Media Atropatene and Parthia to the Republic, 'by their noble efforts under their commander'. It was at this point Antony finally concluded he could no longer reach any kind of modus vivendi with Octavian, who had sought to undermine and isolate him at every opportunity, leaving him to wither on the vine in the east.

Octavian's proximate reason for provoking Antony into taking up arms against him (which, when spun by Octavian's propaganda, became taking up arms against the legacy of Caesar and Rome herself) was that he had to have the riches of the east to pay off and settle the veterans whose smouldering demands for bonuses and land threatened to erupt at any time into massive social unrest the length and breadth of Italy. There was simply nothing comparable to the revenue generating entrepots of Asia Minor, Syria and, especially, Egypt at the western end of the Mediterranean (this endemic feature of the socio-economic milieu constructed by Rome explains why the eastern empire would survive the downfall of its counterpart in the west).

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