Download An introduction to GCC : for the GNU compilers gcc and g++ by Brian J. Gough, Richard M. Stallman PDF

By Brian J. Gough, Richard M. Stallman

This guide presents an entire educational advent to the GNU C and C++ compilers, gcc and g++. Many books educate the C and C++ languages, this e-book teaches you ways to exploit the compiler itself. the entire universal difficulties and mistake messages encountered via new clients of GCC are rigorously defined, with quite a few easy-to-follow "Hello global" examples. subject matters coated contain: compiling C and C++ courses utilizing header documents and libraries, caution ideas, use of the preprocessor, static and dynamic linking, debugging, optimization, platform-specific concepts, profiling and assurance trying out, paths and setting variables, and the C++ commonplace library and templates. incorporates a targeted foreword via Richard M. Stallman, critical developer of GCC and founding father of the GNU undertaking. the entire funds raised from the sale of this e-book will aid the improvement of unfastened software program and documentation

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Example text

The criteria for these options are based on experience of common errors—they are not included in ‘-Wall’ because they only indicate possibly problematic or “suspicious” code. Since these warnings can be issued for valid code it is not necessary to compile with them all the time. It is more appropriate to use them periodically and review the results, checking for anything unexpected, or to enable them for some programs or files. ‘-W’ This is a general option similar to ‘-Wall’ which warns about a selection of common programming errors, such as functions which can return without a value (also known as “falling off the end of the function body”), and comparisons between signed and unsigned values.

For example, the following function dis- Chapter 3: Compilation options 33 cards the const qualifier from its input argument, allowing it to be overwritten: void f (const char * str) { char * s = (char *)str; s[0] = ’\0’; } The modification of the original contents of str is a violation of its const property. This option will warn about the improper cast of the variable str which allows the string to be modified. ‘-Wwrite-strings’ This option implicitly gives all string constants defined in the program a const qualifier, causing a compile-time warning if there is an attempt to overwrite them.

The cost of optimization includes greater complexity in debugging, and increased time and memory requirements during compilation. For most purposes it is satisfactory to use ‘-O0’ for debugging, and ‘-O2’ for development and deployment. 0; unsigned i; for (i = 1; i <= 100000000; i++) { sum += powern (i, i % 5); } printf ("sum = %g\n", sum); return 0; } The main program contains a loop calling the powern function. This function computes the n-th power of a floating point number by repeated multiplication—it has been chosen because it is suitable for both inlining and loop-unrolling.

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