By Anne David
Spoken through as many as 50 million humans in Afghanistan and Pakistan, Pashto contains a number of generally diverging kinds. the guts for complex learn of Language Pashto Grammar offers an outline of the language that's supported through examples offered in local orthography, Roman transcription, morpheme-by-morpheme glossing, and translation. it's designed as a main reference paintings for either linguists and scholars of Pashto.
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Additional resources for Descriptive Grammar of Pashto and its Dialects
1: Class I, stem alternation: spák-o E spə́k-o W spók-o W سپکې spák-e E سپکي spə́k-i W سپکو spák-o E spə́k-o W spók-o W سپک/spək/ ‘light’ Examples of Pashto words appear occasionally in text, with the Pashto script followed by the transcription in phonemic slashes and the gloss in single quotation marks: /spək/ ‘light’. Examples of phrases and complete sentences appear in numbered four-line interlinear examples, with the Pashto script in the first line, the transcription in the second, the morpheme-by-morpheme gloss in the third, and the translation of the sentence in the last line.
This is known as orthographic depth (Sproat, 2000: 6). On a spectrum of depth, Spanish may be considered fairly shallow, or easy to pronounce, and Chinese would be considered especially deep. 1 The script Pashto is written primarily in the Perso-Arabic script, which includes modifications made for Persian, as well as additions specific to Pashto. Like those scripts, and unlike, for example, the Devanagari script in which Hindi is written, the Pashto script is in theory an abjad (Daniels & Bright, 1996), in which the letters represent only the consonants of the language.
The Pashto letter ye in word-final position may appear as (U+06D2) for /ay/ or /e/, and the letter he in word-final position may appear as (U+06C1). Note that these variants may occur in handwriting from various regions. Some authors use he-hamza (U+06C0, referred to in the Unicode documents as “Heh with yeh above”) instead of the more usual Heh (U+0647) in final position to indicate /ə/ as opposed to /a/, for example to distinguish the masculine direct singular demonstrative /haɣa/ ‘that’ from the masculine oblique singular /haɣə/.