By C.K. Gupta, N. Krishnamurthy
Gupta and Krishnamurthy survey the clinical and engineering literature to supply an outline of present practices for extracting infrequent earths and getting ready their derivatives for particular functions. They determine the positioning, caliber, and volume of the world's infrequent earth assets and current a close account of classical and glossy extraction tools. Chemical and electrochemical relief tools also are lined, in addition to steel refining concepts. The authors are affiliated with the Bhabha Atomic study middle in Mumbai, India.
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Extra info for Extractive Metallurgy of Rare Earths
Thus when no other complication crops up, electrotransport purification is best carried out in the bcc phase. The light rare earths form solid solution with each other, and so do the heavy rare earths. The solid solution is not perfect and the liquidus and solidus lines are curved. When a light rare earth is alloyed with a heavy rare earth, two phases are likely to form. 4 Resistivity The rare earth metals are poor electrical conductors. Among the rare earths, room temperature resistivities are highest in the center of the series.
3 wt % C at 775°C. The high stability of the lower carbides of rare earths and also of the carbon–RE solutions make the attack of molten rare earth metals on graphite crucibles an important factor leading to contamination of rare earth metals with carbon. Besides, these characteristics have rendered carbothermic reduction a useless method for rare earth metal preparation. 6 Silicon Silicon, like carbon, forms rare earth silicides and solid solutions. Rare earth silicides are generally all disilicides represented by the formula RESi2, but silicides of other stoichiometry have also been reported (Goldschmidt 1967).
2. In the series, there is an increase in the elastic moduli with an increase in atomic number until a maximum is reached at thulium. Cerium, europium, and ytterbium have anomalously low values. The elastic constants of rare earths are similar in value to those of aluminum, zinc, cadmium, and lead. The hardness and strength values of the rare earths (Gschneidner and Daane 1988, Gschneidner, 1990) follow the same periodic trend displayed by the elastic constants. Cerium, europium, and ytterbium have anomalously low values.