By King-Ning Tu
Solder joints are ubiquitous in digital customer items. the eu Union has a directive to prohibit using Pb-based solders in those items on July 1st, 2006. there's an pressing desire for a rise within the study and improvement of Pb-free solders in digital production. for instance, spontaneous Sn whisker development and electromigration caused failure in solder joints are severe concerns. those reliability matters are fairly advanced a result of mixed impact of electric, mechanical, chemical, and thermal forces on solder joints. to enhance solder joint reliability, the technological know-how of solder joint habit less than a variety of using forces has to be understood. during this ebook, the complicated fabrics reliability matters regarding copper-tin response and electromigration in solder joints are emphasised and strategies to avoid those reliability difficulties are mentioned.
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Additional resources for Solder Joint Technology: Materials, Properties, and Reliability (Springer Series in Materials Science)
SIP is the advanced multifunctional packaging. It is to integrate all kinds of components in and on a single package, mostly a laminated substrate. In other words, it is to take several diﬀerently packaged devices and components and assemble them on a substrate board, and the passive components are embedded in the substrate or surface mounted. It is a heterogeneous integration. ) will be merged together on a high-density interconnected substrate. To do so, chip-size packaging becomes essential, in which the size of the packaging substrate is close to the size of the chip, so that each chip or device does not occupy extra space for cost-eﬃcient assembly on the substrate.
Generally speaking, the advantages of ﬂip chip technology are smaller packaging size, large I/O lead count, and higher performance. In chip-size packaging, where the packaging is of nearly the same size as the chip, the small packaging size is achieved without the periphery bonding area. The larger I/O lead count is due to area array. The higher performance occurs because the bumps in the central part of the chip will allow the device to operate at lower voltage and higher speed. For devices that require these advantages such as handheld devices, ﬂip chip is the only existing technology that can provide the reliability needed.
10 (a) shows the structure of Cu6 Sn5 projected along the [¯101] direction. Copper atoms in the Cu6 Sn5 are represented by circles in hexagonal arrangement. In Fig. 10 (b), the crystal planes for the six relationships are labeled with respect to the Cu atom hexagon. Relationships involving planes (010), (343) and (¯ 34¯ 3) belong to the one group, and relationships with planes (101), (141) and (¯ 14¯ 1) belong to another group. The reason why the [¯ 101] direction of Cu6 Sn5 prefers to be parallel to the  direction of Cu is because of low misﬁt.