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By Millikan R.A., Bowen I.S.

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7 Long-Term Trends in Tropospheric Ozone Concentrations Near the end of the last century, 0 3 measurements were made through the use of the Schonbein method at several locations in Europe. A careful reevaluation of these measurements has yielded insight into the 0 3 concentrations prevailing in the boundary layer and the free troposphere over Europe a hundred years ago (Volz and Kley 1988; Anfossi et al. 1991; Marenco et al. 1994). The results indicate that boundary layer 0 3 concentrations usually ranged between 5 and 15 nl I-I at that time.

The daily patterns of 0 3 at three levels above the canopy (51, 41,31 m) for the period 27-30 June 1987 are shown in Fig. 14. The meteorological conditions consist of wind direction, air temperature, and global radiation. The 0 3 concentrations at all three levels exhibit pronounced diurnal cycles with a maximum in the late afternoon and a minimum during the night. The 0 3 maximum occurred slightly after the maximum of global radiation. Occasionally, the 0 3 minimum was broken up by a short-term increase in concentration.

In contrast, less detailed information is available from the regions south of the Alps, especially from Mediterranean countries, where photochemical production may be the dominant source for tropospheric 0 3 (PORG 1993). For North America, a network of surface measurement sites across the United States provides information on the seasonal, synoptic, and diurnal patterns of 0 3 , The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) principal statistical measure of 0 3 concentrations is calculated from 0 3 measurements made at 431 monitoring sites (EPA 1991a).

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